Why “BARCODE”?

Why “BARCODE”?

Get Unique: Unique identification key for your products and locations (warehouses, storage…)
Go Global: Increase sales and access global markets
Be Efficient: Reduce costs of human errors and employees’ training
Stay Economic: Low cost of designing and printing barcodes
Customize: High customization abilities
Be Reliable: Reliable information accessible by all, leading to wide spread in global markets.
Trace: improved monitoring of stock and tracking transportation
Be Sure: Immediate and accurate information supporting decision making

What is the Barcode

What is the Barcode

A barcode or bar code is a method of representing data in a visual, machine-readable form. Initially, barcodes represented data by varying the widths and spacings of parallel lines. These barcodes, now commonly referred to as linear or one-dimensional (1D), can be scanned by special optical scanners, called barcode readers, of which there are several types. Later, two-dimensional (2D) variants were developed, using rectangles, dots, hexagons and other geometric patterns, called matrix codes or 2D barcodes, although they do not use bars as such. 2D barcodes can be read using purpose-built 2D optical scanners, which exist in a few different forms. 2D barcodes can also be read by a digital camera connected to a microcomputer running software that takes a photographic image of the barcode and analyzes the image to deconstruct and decode the 2D barcode. A mobile device with an inbuilt camera, such as smartphone, can function as the latter type of 2D barcode reader using specialized application software. (The same sort of mobile device could also read 1D barcodes, depending on the application software.)

The barcode was invented by Norman Joseph Woodland and Bernard Silver and patented in the US in 1951. The invention was based on Morse code that was extended to thin and thick bars. However, it took over twenty years before this invention became commercially successful. An early use of one type of barcode in an industrial context was sponsored by the Association of American Railroads in the late 1960s. Developed by General Telephone and Electronics (GTE) and called KarTrak ACI (Automatic Car Identification), this scheme involved placing colored stripes in various combinations on steel plates which were affixed to the sides of railroad rolling stock. Two plates were used per car, one on each side, with the arrangement of the colored stripes encoding information such as ownership, type of equipment, and identification number. The plates were read by a trackside scanner, located for instance, at the entrance to a classification yard, while the car was moving past. The project was abandoned after about ten years because the system proved unreliable after long-term use.

Barcodes became commercially successful when they were used to automate supermarket checkout systems, a task for which they have become almost universal. The Uniform Grocery Product Code Council had chosen, in 1973, the barcode design developed by George Laurer. Laurer’s barcode, with vertical bars, printed better than the circular barcode developed by Woodland and Silver. Their use has spread to many other tasks that are generically referred to as automatic identification and data capture (AIDC). The first scanning of the now-ubiquitous Universal Product Code (UPC) barcode was on a pack of Wrigley Company chewing gum in June 1974 at a Marsh supermarket in Troy, Ohio, using scanner produced by Photographic Sciences Corporation.[6][5] QR codes, a specific type of 2D barcode, have recently become very popular due to the growth in smartphone ownership.

Other systems have made inroads in the AIDC market, but the simplicity, universality and low cost of barcodes has limited the role of these other systems, particularly before technologies such as radio-frequency identification (RFID) became available after 1995.

(source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barcode)

Barcode Languages

Barcode Languages

Barcode Languages

There are different types of barcode languages (data carriers) to satisfy the many types of barcode applications.

UPC-A

The UPC-12 is the most widely used and most recognized symbol in the United States. Its primary usage has been for product identification in the retail industry.

This symbol has a fixed length of twelve numeric characters. The data encoded within a UPC-A conforms to a standardized format (See illustration). The twelfth digit of a UPC-A symbol is a calculated check character computed from the eleven prior numbers.

UPC-E

UPC-E only codifies 8 numbers. This data carrier is referred as “zero suppressed” since it represents a condensed version of the twelve data characters of a UPC.

EAN-13

EAN-13 bar code is exactly the same as a UPC-12, however the first digit is not assumed to a zero. All scanners which are able to read a UPC-12 can also read an EAN-13.  This barcode is widely used globally outside of the United States.

Code 3 of 9 (Code 39)

Code 3 of 9 (also referred to as Code 39) is a very common bar code language which can represent alphanumeric characters of varying length. The start/stop characters for Code 39 symbols is always an asterisk.

Interleaved 2 of 5 (I 2/5)

Interleaved 2/5 is a high density code of variable length. Only an even number of numeric data can be encoded within this symbol. This “double density” symbol encodes odd positioned data in the bars, and even positioned data in the spaces.

ITF-14 (GTIN-14)

The ITF-14, is used to mark cartons, cases, or pallets that contain products which have UPC or EAN identification numbers. The container symbols are used by retailers, manufacturers, and distributors for accurate logistical and inventory handling. The data carrier used to encode the ITF-14 is Interleaved 2of5.

Code 128

Code 128 is a very compact and versatile language which allows the encodation of the entire 128 ASCII character set. This symbology is self-checking and is designed with geometric features to improve scanner read performance.

GS1-128 

This language is a variation of the Code 128 symbology designed primarily for product/shipment identification applications. The GS1-128 specification uses the same code set as Code 128, however a special character (function 1) is used as part of the start code in the symbol. In addition, this symbol  symbol utilizes standardized application identifiers (AI’s).

GS1 Databar

The GS1 DataBar (formerly known as RSS or Reduced Space Symbology) was formally adopted by the global supply chain in January 2011. It can carry all 14 digits of a manufacture’s GTIN and is more than 50% smaller than the currently used UPC and EAN symbols.

Codabar

Codabar is a self-checking language which encodes 16 data characters:0-9,6 special characters (-$:/.+).

Postnet

The Postnet (Postal Numerical Encoding Technique) barcode was developed by the US Postal Service to encode ZIP code information on letter mail. Postnet symbols differ from other barcodes, because the individual barcode height alternates rather than the bar width.

QR Code

QR Code is a 2 dimensional barcode, commonly used for mobile marketing campaigns.

PD417 

PDF417 is a high density, two dimensional barcode consisting essentially of stacked lower barcode sets. This symbology is able to encode all the ASCII table characters (255).

List of GS1 Country Codes

List of GS1 Country Codes

CodeCountry
000 – 019UPC-A compatible United States and
 Canada
020 – 029UPC-A compatible – Used to issue restricted circulation numbers within a geographic region (MO defined)
030 – 039UPC-A compatible
 United States drugs (see United States National Drug Code)
040 – 049UPC-A compatible – Used to issue restricted circulation numbers within a geographic region (MO defined)
050 – 059UPC-A compatible – GS1 US reserved for future use
060 – 099UPC-A compatible United States and
 Canada
100 – 139
 
United States
200 – 299Used to issue GS1 restricted circulation number within a geographic region (MO defined)
300 – 379
 
France and Template:Country data Monaco
380
 
Bulgaria
383
 
Slovenia
385
 
Croatia
387
 
Bosnia and Herzegovina
389
 
Montenegro
390
 
Kosovo
400 – 440
 
Germany (440 code inherited from old Template:Country data East Germany on reunification, 1990)
450 – 459
 
Japan (new Japanese Article Number range)
460 – 469
 
Russia (barcodes inherited from the Template:Country data Soviet Union)
470Template:Country data Kyrgyzstan
471Template:Country data Republic of China (Taiwan)
474
 
Estonia
475
 
Latvia
476
 
Azerbaijan and Template:Country data Nagorno-Karabakh
477
 
Lithuania
478
 
Uzbekistan
479
 
Sri Lanka
480
 
Philippines
481
 
Belarus
482Template:Country data Ukraine
483Template:Country data Turkmenistan [1]
484
 
Moldova and Template:Country data Transnistria
485
 
Armenia
486
 Georgia,
 Abkhazia and
 South Ossetia
487
 
Kazakhstan
488Template:Country data Tajikistan
489
 
Hong Kong
490 – 499
 
Japan (original Japanese Article Number range)
500 – 509
 
United Kingdom
520 – 521
 
Greece
528Template:Country data Lebanon
529
 
Cyprus
530
 
Albania
531
 
Macedonia
535Template:Country data Malta
539
 
Republic of Ireland
540 – 549
 Belgium and
 Luxembourg
560
 
Portugal
569
 
Iceland
570 – 579
 
Denmark ,Template:Country data Faroe Islands andTemplate:Country data Greenland
590
 
Poland
594
 
Romania
599
 
Hungary
600 – 601
 
South Africa
603
 
Ghana
604
 
Senegal
608
 
Bahrain
609Template:Country data Mauritius
611
 
Morocco
613
 
Algeria
615
 
Nigeria
616
 
Kenya
618Template:Country data Ivory Coast
619
 
Tunisia
620Template:Country data Tanzania
621
 
Syria
622
 
Egypt
623
 
Brunei
624
 
Libya
625Template:Country data Jordan
626
 
Iran
627
 
Kuwait
628
 
Saudi Arabia
629
 
United Arab Emirates
640 – 649
 
Finland
690 – 699
 
People’s Republic of China
700 – 709
 
Norway
729
 
Israel
730 – 739
 
Sweden : EAN/GS1 Sweden
740
 
Guatemala
741
 
El Salvador
742
 
Honduras
743
 
Nicaragua
744
 
Costa Rica
745Template:Country data Panama
746
 
Dominican Republic
750
 
Mexico
754 – 755
 
Canada
759
 
Venezuela
760 – 769
  Switzerland and
 Liechtenstein
770 – 771
 
Colombia
773Template:Country data Uruguay
775
 
Peru
777
 
Bolivia
778 – 779
 
Argentina
780
 
Chile
784Template:Country data Paraguay
786
 
Ecuador
789 – 790
 
Brazil
800 – 839
 Italy,  San Marino and
  Vatican City
840 – 849
 
Spain and Template:Country data Andorra
850Template:Country data Cuba
858
 
Slovakia
859
 
Czech Republic
860
 
Serbia
865Template:Country data Mongolia
867
 
North Korea
868 – 869
 
Turkey and Template:Country data Northern Cyprus
870 – 879
 
Netherlands
880
 
South Korea
884
 
Cambodia
885
 
Thailand
888
 
Singapore
890
 
India
893
 
Vietnam (previously used by Template:Country data North Vietnam and Template:Country data South Vietnam before 1975)
894
 
Bangladesh
896
 
Pakistan
899
 
Indonesia
900 – 919
 
Austria
930 – 939
 
Australia
940 – 949
 
New Zealand
950GS1 Global Office: Special applications
951Used to issue General Manager Numbers for the EPC General Identifier (GID) scheme as defined by the EPC Tag Data Standard
955
 
Malaysia
958Template:Country data Macau
960 – 961GS1 UK Office: GTIN-8 allocations
962 – 969 GS1 Global Office: GTIN-8 allocations
977Serial publications (ISSN)
978 – 979Bookland” (ISBN) – 979-0 used for sheet music (ISMN-13, replaces deprecated ISMN M- numbers)
980Refund receipts
981 – 984GS1 coupon identification for common currency areas
990 – 999GS1 coupon identification